Substitution example sentences

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Substitution

[ˌsəbstiˈt(y)o͞oSH(ə)n]

NOUN

Synonyms

exchange, change, interchange, replacement, replacing, swapping, switching, swap, switch, barter,

"Substitution" Example Sentences

1. The conversation turned back to the substitution of the skeleton and the theft of the small bone from their room.
2. Of wires in substitution for those of which they had been joint users.
3. CH(CH 3) CH 3, isobutane, substitution occurring at the medial atom.
4. Phenol is characterized by the readiness with which it forms substitution products; chlorine and bromine, for example, react readily with phenol, forming orthoand parachlorand -bromphenol, and, by further action, trichlorand tribrom-phenol.
5. The agitation for the completely separate organization of the Hungarian army, and for the substitution of Magyar for German in words of command in Hungarian regiments, broke down the patience of the emperor, tenacious of his pr.~rogative as supreme war lord of the common aIlny.
6. CH3, known as " normal " or n-butane, substitution occurring at a terminal atom, or CH 3.
7. The account of the substitution in the Temple is well substantiated, even to the names of the substitutes.
8. Soc. 61, p. 367): If the hydrogen compound of the substituent already in the benzene nucleus can be directly oxidized to the' corresponding hydroxyl compound, then meta-derivatives predominate on further substitution, if not, then orthoand paraderivatives.
9. By that time there were enough examples of the substitution code to make the job fairly simple.
10. On the 16th of November 1816, she was interrogated by the police, who frightened her into silence about the supposed substitution of another child for the dauphin.
11. (e) Dr Westermarck takes the view that human sacrifice is as a rule an act of substitution, in that men offer a victim in the hope of saving themselves; but he also recognizes funeral sacrifices of various kinds.
12. Certain kinds of copying inks are greatly improved by the substitution of glycerin, in part or entirely, for the sugar or honey usually added.
13. The substitution of steamships for sailing vessels has brought about a diminution in the number of vessels belonging to the Italian mercantile marine, whether employed in the coasting trade, the fisheries or in traffic on the high seas.
14. The inconvenience of having a single ambo led to the substitution of two separate ambones, between which these various functions were divided, one on the south side of the chancel being for the reading of the gospel, and one on the north for reading the epistle.
15. There was a waste of metal in these early rails owing to the excessive thickness of the vertical web, and subsequent improvements have consisted in adjusting the dimensions so as to combine strength with economy of metal, as well as in the substitution of steel for wrought iron (after the introduction of the Bessemer process) and in minute attention to the composition of the steel employed.
16. Laurent, to protect himself from the consequences of the substitution, replaced the wooden figure by a deaf mute, who was presently exchanged for the scrofulous child of the death certificate.
17. The proof of this statement rests on the fact that if the hydrogen atoms were not co-planar, then substitution derivatives (the substituting groups not containing asymmetric carbon atoms) should exist in enantiomorphic forms, differing in crystal form and in their action on polarized light; such optical antipodes have, however, not yet been separated.
18. He has the familiar Calderonian limitations; the substitution of types for characters, of eloquence for vital dialogue.
19. Another reform was the substitution for the corvee of a tax in money levied on the whole province, the construction of roads being handed over to contractors, by which means Turgot was able to leave his province with a good system of roads, while distributing more justly the expense of their construction.
20. A feature of the upland districts is the total absence of hedges, and the substitution of limestone walls, put together without any mortar or cement.
21. According to Gerhardt, the process of substitution consisted of the union of two residues to fo- m a unitary whole; these residues, previously termed " compound radicals," are atomic complexes which remain over from the interaction of two compounds.
22. The doctrine of copulae was discarded, and in 1859 emphasis was given to the view that all organic compounds were derivatives of inorganic by simple substitution processes.
23. Briefly, they are to be found in the conditions of the time; the increasing insularity of the English barons, now no longer the holders of estates in Normandy; the substitution of an unpopular for a popular king, an active spur to the rising forces of discontent; and the unprecedented demands for money - demands followed, not by honour, but by dishonour, to the arms of England abroad.
24. Hubert and Mauss, while admitting that in all sacrifices is found some idea of purchase or substitution, decline to admit that all have issued from one primitive form.
25. Accordingly Keates proposed the substitution of a closed cup in 1871, but his suggestions were not adopted.
26. Dumas went no further that thus epitomizing his observations; and the next development was made in 1836 by Auguste Laurent, who, having amplified and discussed the applicability of Dumas' views, promulgated his Nucleus Theory, which assumed the existence of " original nuclei or radicals " (radicaux or noyaux fondamentaux) composed of carbon and hydrogen, and " derived nuclei " (radicaux or noyaux derives) formed from the original nuclei by the substitution of hydrogen or the addition of other elements, and having properties closely related to the primary nuclei.
27. Here we meet with a great diversity of types: oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and other elements may, in addition to carbon, combine together in a great number of arrangements to form cyclic nuclei, which exhibit characters closely resembling open-chain compounds in so far as they yield substitution derivatives, and behave as compound radicals.
28. At the same time the substitution of ."
29. With chlorine they yield substitution products.
30. The orientation of higher substitution derivatives is determined by considering the diand tri-substitution compounds into which they can be transformed.
31. By actual observations it has been shown that ether, alcohol, many esters of the normal alcohols and fatty acids, benzene, and its halogen substitution products, have critical constants agreeing with this originally empirical law, due to Sydney Young and Thomas; acetic acid behaves abnormally, pointing to associated molecules at the critical point.
32. Ladenburg, who devoted much attention to the study of the substitution products of benzene, and 's to the support of his own formula.
33. The next important advance was the substitution of solid for liquid media; due originally to Schroter.
34. He purchased the allegiance of the stryeltsi, or musketeers, and then, summoning the boyars of the council, earnestly represented to them that Theodore, scarce able to live, was surely unable to reign, and urged the substitution of little Peter.
35. By making them in longer lengths a reduction was effected in the number of joints - always the weakest part of the line; and another advance consisted in the substitution of wrought iron for cast iron, though that material did not gain wide adoption until after the patent for an improved method of rolling rails granted in 1820 to John Birkinshaw, of the Bedlington Ironworks, Durham.
36. The substitution of steel for iron as the material for rails which made possible the axle loads and the speeds of Lto-day, and, by reducing the cost of maintenance, contributed enormously to the economic efficiency of railways, was one of the most important events in the history of railways, and a scarcely less important element of progressive economy has been the continued improvement of the steel rail in stiffness of section and in toughness and hardness of material.
37. It has been held that animal sacrifice is the primitive form and that the decay of totemism or lack of domestic animals has brought about the substitution of a human victim; but it has also been urged that in many cases animal victims are treated like human beings and must consequently have replaced them, that human beings are smeared with the blood of sacrifice, and must therefore have themselves been sacrificed before a milder regime allowed an animal to replace them.
38. This compound is readily oxidized to benzoic acid, C 6 H 5 000H, the aromatic residue being unattacked; nitric and sulphuric acids produce nitro-toluenes, C6H4 CH3 N02j and toluene sulphonic acids, C 6 H 4 CH 3 SO 3 H; chlorination may result in the formation of derivatives substituted either in the aromatic nucleus or in the side chain; the former substitution occurs most readily, chlor-toluenes, C 6 H 4 CH 3 Cl, being formed, while the latter, which needs an elevation in temperature or other auxiliary, yields benzyl chloride, C 6 H 5 CH 2 C1, and benzal chloride, C 6 11 5 CHC1 2.
39. Substitution of the Benzene Ring.-As a general rule, homologues and mono-derivatives of benzene react more readily with substituting agents than the parent hydrocarbon; for example, phenol is converted into tribromphenol by the action of bromine water, and into the nitrophenols by dilute nitric acid; similar activity characterizes aniline.
40. By further substitution of orthoand para-diderivatives, in general the same tri-derivative [1.2.4] is formed (Ann., 1878, 192, p. 219); meta - compounds yield [1.3.41 and [1.2.
41. The substitution of a hydrogen atom by the hydroxyl group generally occasions a rise in boiling-point at about Ioo°.
42. 81° 123° 112° 83° 42° - II° - 29° The replacement of one negative group by another is accompanied by a change in the boiling-point, which is independent of the compound in which the substitution is effected, and solely conditioned by the nature of the replaced and replacing groups.
43. The amino group is more powerful than the hydroxyl, and the substituted amino group more powerful still; the repeated substitution of hydroxyl groups sometimes causes an intensification and sometimes a diminution of colour.
44. Many instances have been recorded where substitution has effected a deformation in one particular direction, the crystals of homologous compounds often exhibiting the same angles between faces situated in certain zones.
45. This points to the conclusion that substitution has been effected in one of the cube faces.
46. Coplanar substitution in four hydrogen atoms would involve the pushing apart of the iodine atoms in four horizontal directions.
47. CH2 CH2Br CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 Numerous substitution derivatives of pyrrol are known.
48. The principal feature is the suppression of the direct channel of the sap, and the substitution of four, or more commonly two, mother branches, so laid to the wall that the central angle contains about 90°.
49. It has, in fact, become metamorphosed into a resistant supporting structure resembling in some respects the notochord of the true Chordata, but probably not directly comparable with the latter structure, being related to it solely by way of substitution.
50. Clarke (1889-1893) supposes them to be substitution derivatives of normal aluminium orthosilicate A14(S104)3, in which part of the aluminium is replaced by alkalis, magnesium, iron and the univalent groups (MgF), (A1F2),(AlO), (MgOH); an excess of silica is explained by the isomorphous replacement of H 4 SiO 4 by the acid H4S130s.
51. Other " Galois " groups were defined whose substitution coefficients have fixed numerical values, and are particularly associated with the theory of equations.
52. Now the determinant has the value - {AiA11+A2A22+A3A33+2A2A3A23+2A3AIA31+2A1A2Al2{ = -Eata r r-2EA r A 8 A rs in general, and hence by substitution {A I V A n+ A 211 A22+��� +A71 Ann}2.
53. Such a determinant is of importance in the theory of orthogonal substitution.
54. Similarly, for the order 3, we take 1 v Ab= -v 1 A =1 +x2 + 1, 2 + � - A 1 and the adjoint is 1+A v +A� -� +Av -v +A� 1+11 2 A +/-tv pt+AvA +�v 1 +1,2 leading to the orthogonal substitution Abx1 = (1 +A 2 - / 22 - v 2) X l +2(v+A�)X2 +2(/1 +Av)X3 1bx2 = 2(A� - v)Xl+(1 +�2 - A2 - v2)X2 / +2(Fiv+A)X3 Abx3 = 2(Av +�)X1 +2(/lv-A)X2+(1+v2-A2- (12)X3.
55. Is transformed into the operator d 1 by the substitution (ac, al, a2, ���as, ���) _ (ao, Xoai, X 6 X i a 2, ���, XcX1..%s_las,���), so that the theory of the general operator is coincident with that of the particular operator d1.
56. If the variables of the quantic f(x i, x 2) be subjected to the linear transformation x1 = a12Et2, x2 = a21E1+a2252, E1, being new variables replacing x1, x 2 and the coefficients an, all, a 21, a22, termed the coefficients of substitution (or of transformation), being constants, we arrive at a transformed quantic f% 1tn n n-1 n-2 52) = a S +(1)a11 E 2 + (2)a2E1 E 2 +��� in the new variables which is of the same order as the original quantic; the new coefficients a, a, a'...a are linear functions 0 1 2 n of the original coefficients, and also linear functions of products, of the coefficients of substitution, of the nth degree.
57. By solving the equations of transformation we obtain rE1 = a22x1 - a12x1, r = - a21x1 + allx2, aua12 where r = I = anon-anon; a21 a22 r is termed the determinant of substitution or modulus of transformation; we assure x 1, x 2 to be independents, so that r must differ from zero.
58. Which have different coefficients, the same variables, and are of the same or different degrees in the variables; we may transform them all by the same substitution, so that they become _, _, _, _, _, _, f(a °, a, a 2, ...; (b 0, b, b 2, ...; 1, S2),....
59. For the substitution rr xl =A 11 +1 2 12, 52=A21+�2E2, of modulus A1 �i = (Al�.2-A2�1) = (AM), A 2 �2 the quadratic form a k xi -1-2a 1 x i x 2 +a 2 4 = x =f (x), becomes A41 +2A1E16 =At = OW, where Ao = aoA i +2a1AiA2 +a2Az, _ _ A 1 = ao A l�l +ai(A1/.22+A2�1) +7,2X2/22, A2 = ao�l +2a1�1/�2 +a 2�2 � We pass to the symbolic forms a:= (aixi+a2x2) 2, A 2 = (A 151+ A 26) 2/ by writing for ao, al, a2 the symbols ai, a 1 a 2, a?
60. By the same scheme of linear substitution the two sets are said to be cogredient quantities."
61. X1, X 2, u1, /22 being as usual the coefficients of substitution, let x1a ?
62. To exhibit any covariant as a function of uo, ul, a n = (aiy1+a2y2) n and transform it by the substitution fi y 1+f2 y where f l = aay 1, f2 = a2ay -1, x y - x y = X x thence f .
63. Lii.) that the substitution, z =?
64. Or, instead of looking upon a linear substitution as replacing a pencil of lines by a projectively corresponding pencil retaining the same axes of co-ordinates, we may look upon the substitution as changing the axes of co-ordinates retaining the same pencil.
65. The substitution for x, y in terms of X, Y is the most general linear substitution in virtue of the four degrees of arbitrariness introduced, viz.
66. Besides the invariants and covariants, hitherto studied, there are others which appertain to particular cases of the general linear substitution.
67. Thus what have been called seminvariants are not all of them invariants for the general substitution, but are invariants for the particular substitution xl = X11 + J-s12, X 2 = 112 Again, in plane geometry, the most general equations of substitution which change from old axes inclined at w to new axes inclined at w' =13 - a, and inclined at angles a, l3 to the old axis of x, without change of origin, are x-sin(wa)X+sin(w -/3)Y sin w sin ' _sin ax y sin w a transformation of modulus sin w' sin w' The theory of invariants originated in the discussion, by George Boole, of this system so important in geometry.
68. We have cos w' = cos w = o and the substitution x 1 =cos OX, -sin 0(2 x 2 = sin OX i +cos 6X2, with modulus unity.
69. This is called the direct orthogonal substitution, because the sense of rotation from the axis of X i to the axis of X, is the same as that from that of x i to that of x 2.
70. If the senses of rotation be opposite we have the skew orthogonal substitution x1 =cos0Xi+sinOX2r x 2 = sin °Xicos OX2r of modulus -1.
71. In both cases ddl and dal are cogredient with xl and x 2; for, in the case of direct substitution, dxi = cost dX i - sin 00-(2, ad2 =sin B dX i +cos O dX 2, and for skew substitution dai = cos B dX i +sin 0d2, c-&-- 2 n d =sin -coseax2.
72. Then of course (AB) = (ab) the fundamental fact which appertains to the theory of the general linear substitution; now here we have additional and equally fundamental facts; for since A i = Xa i +,ia2, A2= - �ay + X a2, AA =A?-}-A2= (X2 +M 2)(a i+ a z) =aa; A B =AjBi+A2B2= (X2 +, U2)(albi+a2b2) =ab; (XA) = X i A2 - X2 Ai = (Ax i + /-Lx2) (- /-jai + Xa2) - (- / J.x i '+' Axe) (X a i +%Ga^2) = (X2 +, u 2) (x a - = showing that, in the present theory, a a, a b, and (xa) possess the invariant property.
73. The leading idea of this work was contained in a paper published in the Berlin Memoirs for 1772.5 Its object was the elimination of the, to some minds, unsatisfactory conception of the infinite from the metaphysics of the higher mathematics, and the substitution for the differential and integral calculus of an analogous method depending wholly on the serial development of algebraical functions.
74. The substitution of electricity for animal traction was begun in Sao Salvador in 1906.
75. But the trade over berg largely developed on the dis covery of the Kimberley diamond mines, and the progress of the country was greatly promoted by the substitution of the railway for the ox wagon as a means of transport.
76. Substitution takes place usually in the nucleus and only rarely in the side chain, and according to the conditions of the experiment and the nature of the compound acted upon, one or more nitro groups enter the molecule.
77. 1902) once more brought up the question of the common army, the parliament refusing to pass the bill, except in return for the introduction of the Hungarian national flag into the Hungarian regiments and the substitution of Magyar for German in the words of command.
78. The two main items in the published programme of the new government were the introduction of universal suffrage and - even more revolutionary from the Magyar point of view - the substitution of state-appointed for elected officials in the counties.
79. We readily find (with substitution for k of 27r/X) a2b S n J s in fl „2a2E2 „2b2n2 f2X2 f2X2 as representing the distribution of light in the image of a mathematical point when the aperture is rectangular, as is often the case in spectroscopes.
80. If not, the substitution of an achromatic lens will be of no advantage.
81. The first maximum in fact occurs when 6=2A-0046X, and the first minimum when 5 = 8X- oo16X, the corrections being readily obtainable from a table of G by substitution of the approximate value of V.
82. They seem to begin about the 6th century B.C., and to continue till the 2nd century A.D.; that is, they cover the period of the Scythic domination according to the account accepted above, and that of the Sarmatian, and so suggest that, as far as the archaeological evidence goes, there was little more than a change of name and perhaps the substitution of one ruling clan for another - not a real change of population.
83. Fraser proved that by substitution of molecules in certain compounds a stimulant could be converted into a sedative action; thus by the addition of the methyl group CH 2 to the molecule of strychnine, thebaine or brucine, the tetanizing action of these drugs is converted into a paralysing action.
84. Probably the Teutonic pressure began as early as the 4th century before Christ, and the history of the next few hundred years may be summed up as the gradual substitution of a Germanic for a Celtic population along the banks of the Rhine.
85. It fell to his lot as war minister to obtain the duke of Cambridge's resignation of the' office of commander-in-chief; but his intended appointment of a chief of the staff in substitution for that office was frustrated by the resignation of the ministry.
86. (August 2, 1571) to the bishops of the West Indies permitting the substitution of balsam of Peru for the balsam of the East in the preparation of the chrism to be used by the Catholic Church in America.
87. Kolbe had an important share in the great development of chemical theory that occurred about the middle of the 19th century, especially in regard to the constitution of organic compounds, which he viewed as derivatives of inorganic ones, formed from the latter - in some cases directly - by simple processes of substitution.
88. Hydriodic acid reduces it to hexamethylene" (cyclo-hexane or hexa-hydro-benzene); chlorine and bromine form substitution and addition products, but the action is slow unless some carrier such as iodine, molybdenum chloride or ferric chloride for chlorine, and aluminium bromide for bromine, be present.
89. In the disk plough, which is built both as a riding and a walking plough, the essential feature is the substitution of a concavo convex disk, pivoted on the plough beam, for the mould-board and share of the ordinary plough.
90. Probably this fact, together with the more general fact of the absorption in most things of the German in the Roman, accounts for the substitution of the patrocinium for the comitatus which took place under the Merovingians.
91. Of these (3) and (4) are of marked eschatological character, and show little contact with definite historical events ' Driver, op. cit., p. 229, who also refers to the differences of Messianic outlook, and the substitution of an atmosphere of war for one of peace.
92. From his committee he reported in April 1888 the "Mills Bill," which provided for a reduction of the duties on sugar, earthenware, glassware, plate glass, woollen goods and other articles, the substitution of ad valorem for specific duties in many cases, and the placing of lumber (of certain kinds), hemp, wool, flax, borax, tin plates, salt and other articles on the free list.
93. He gave earnest support to the Legal Tender Act, and the substitution of the national for the state banking system.
94. In such cases of substitution the vowels of the word which is to be read are written in the Hebrew text with the consonants of the word which is not to be read.
95. With this may be compared a passage in the Ursprung der Sprache, where there is a curious adumbration of Spencer's idea that intelligence, as distinguished from instinct, arises from a growing complexity of action, or, to use Herder's words, from the substitution of a more for a less contracted sphere.
96. The standpoint of the Reformed churches was the substitution of the authority of the Scriptures for the authority of the church.
97. An important nucleus-synthetic reaction is the saponification of nitriles, which may be obtained by the interaction of potassium cyanide with a halogen substitution derivative or a sulphonic acid.
98. The value of the angular coefficient d(pv)/dp is evidently (b - c), which expresses the defect of the actual volume v from the ideal volume Re/p. Differentiating equation (17) at constant pressure to find dv/do, and observing that dcldO= - nc/O, we find by substitution in (is) the following simple expression for the cooling effect do/dp in terms of c and b, Sdo/dp= (n+I)c - b..
99. In the Church of England and its sister and daughter churches the position of the archbishop is defined by the medieval in the Roman Catholic Church, save as modified on the n one hand by the substitution of the supremacy of the crown for that of the Holy See, and on the other by the restrictions imposed by the council of Trent.
100. By the substitution of " infinite " and " reasoning " for such archaisms as " incomprehensible " and " reasonable."
101. substitution for quinine.
102. On the other hand, Vieta was well skilled in most modern artifices, aiming at a simplification of equations by the substitution of new quantities having a certain connexion with the primitive unknown quantities.
103. Percy, the mineral matter being also changed by the removal of silica and alkalis and the substitution of substances analogous in composition to fire-clay.
104. The substitution of machinery for hand labour in cutting coal has long been a favourite problem with inventors, the earliest plan being that of Michael Meinzies, in 1761, who proposed to work a heavy pick underground by power transmitted from an engine at the surface, through the agencies of spear-rods and chains passing over pulleys; but none of the methods suggested proved to be practically successful until the general introduction of compressed air into mines furnished a convenient motive power, susceptible of being carried to considerable distances without any great loss of pressure.
105. The arrangement is, in fact, a modification of the plug and feather system used in stone quarrying for obtaining large blocks, but with the substitution of the powerful rending force of the hydraulic press for handpower in driving up the wedges.
106. A novelty in winding arrangements is the substitution of the electromotor for the steam engine, which has been effected in a few instances.
107. Not only does the correction involve the substitution of papal authority for a universal consent of " pastors " and " the faithful "; it also deliberately ranks the unformulated teachings of the church on points of doctrine as no less de fide than those formulated.
108. 4, where the Chaldaeans are said to have spoken to the king in Aramaic. But the cuneiform inscriptions show that the language of the Chaldaeans was Assyrian; and an examination of the very large part of the Hebrew Old Testament written later than the exile proves conclusively that the substitution of Aramaic for Hebrew as the vernacular of Palestine took place very gradually.
109. The results, which were not satisfactory, were published without comment' Ten years later, the chief alteration in the inquiry was the substitution of the main occupation of the family for that of the individual.
110. The schedule is much the same as in India with the substitution of race for caste.
111. The relation between the inaccuracy of the data and the additional inaccuracy due to substitution of another figure is similar to the relation between the inaccuracies in mensuration of a figure which is supposed to be of a given form (§ 20).
112. With the substitution of iron for bronze as the material for dies, about A.D.
113. These did not interfere with the general lines of Atkinson's strong and cautious finance, though the first of them was the abolition of his direct tax upon all property, personal as well as real, and the substitution therefor of a landtax of id.
114. On the ground that the aim of every prosperous community should be to have a large proportion of hardy country yeomen, and that horticulture and agriculture demand such a high ratio of labour, as compared with feeding and breeding cattle, that the country population would be greatly increased by the substitution of a fruit and vegetable for an animal dietary.
115. For the simplest case of polarized waves travelling parallel to the axis of x, with the magnetic oscillation y along z and the electric oscillation Q along y, all the quantities are functions of x and t alone; the total current is along y and given with respect to our moving axes by __ (d_ d Q+vy d K-1 Q, dt dx) 47rc 2 + dt (4?rc 2) ' also the circuital relations here reduce to _ dydQ _dy _ dx 47rv ' _ dt ' d 2 Q dv dx 2 -417t giving, on substitution for v, d 2 Q d 2 Q d2Q (c2-v2)(7372 = K dt 2 2u dxdt ' For a simple wave-train, Q varies as sin m(x-Vt), leading on substitution to the velocity of propagation V relative to the moving material, by means of the equation KV 2 + 2 uV = c 2 v2; this gives, to the first order of v/c, V = c/K i - v/K, which is in accordance with Fresnel's law.
116. The prominence given by most of the Sophists to rhetoric, their cultivation of a subjective readiness as the essential equipment for life, their substitution of persuasion for conviction, all mark the sceptical undertone of their teaching.
117. The situation, with its wooded hills and neighbouring islands, is no less beautiful than that of other south-coast towns, but the substitution of brick for wood as building material after a fire in 1892 made against the picturesqueness of the town.
118. The substitution of bosheth (= shame) for ba'al in Ishbosheth (2 Sam.
119. ( =18th March); and if this was the primitive form of the tradition, it is easy to see how 25th March could have grown out of it, since the 18th would from comparatively early times, in the East at any rate, have been thought impossible as falling before the equinox, and no substitution would be so natural as that of the day week, Friday, 25th March.
120. In development of this consideration, Smith goes on to explain the gain to the community arising from the substitution of paper money for that composed of the precious metals; and here occurs the remarkable illustration in which the use of gold and silver money is compared to a highway on the ground, that of paper money to a wagon way through the air.
121. The principal industry was weaving, but the substitution of the power-loom for the hand-loom nearly put an end to it.
122. An essential element in the new policy was the substitution of an alliance with France for the old Burgundian friendship. The affair of San Juan de Ulua and the seizure of the Spanish treasure-ships in 1568 had been omens of the inevitable conflict with Spain; Ridolfi's plot and Philip II.'s approaches to Mary Stuart indicated the lines upon which the struggle would be fought; and it was Walsingham's business to reconcile the Huguenots with the French government, and upon this reconciliation to base an Anglo-French alliance which might lead to a grand attack on Spain, to the liberation of the] Netherlands, to the destruction of Spain's monopoly in the New World, and to making Protestantism the dominant force in Europe.
123. This process was, moreover, hastened by the substitution of costly and elaborately embroidered materials for the simple stuffs of which the vestment had originally been composed; for, as it became heavier and stiffer, it necessarily had to be made smaller.
124. The drawback for the dogmatist of such a view as Serapion broaches in his prayers was this, that although it explained how the Logos comes to be immanent in the elements, as a soul in its body, nevertheless it did not guarantee the presence in or rather substitution for the natural elements of Christ's real body and blood.
125. The Civil War caused enormous losses to the merchant marine, and the worldwide substitution about this time of iron steamers for wooden steamers and sailing vessels contributed to prevent a recovery; because, although ship-building was one of the earliest arts developed in the colonies, and one that was prosecuted with the highest success so long as wooden ships were the dominant type, the United States has never achieved marked success with the iron steamer, and the law has precluded the registry as American of vessels built abroad.
126. A manuscript is not usually a clean or single piece of writing; it is commonly found to contain alterations by erasure, addition or substitution.
127. This is the deliberate alteration of an exemplar by way of substitution, addition or omission, but when it takes the particular form of omission it is naturally very hard to detect.
128. Let (C7) W =A, Then For All Years After 1800 The Value Of M Will Beiven By The Formula (C 18 A), G' Y W Therefore, 3 Counting From The Beginning Of The Calendar In 1582, C 15 A ' M = 3 W By The Substitution Of These Values Of J, S And M, The Equation Of The Epact Becomes E C 16 (C 16 (C 15 A) 3 O R () 4 W 3 W.
129. But with the substitution of Ottoman for Arab empire, resulting in the virtual independence of both Egypt and Tripoli, the district lying between them relapsed to anarchy.
130. The substitution of the English language for the Latin language, which had hitherto been in universal and almost complete use, and in which all the old service books were written.
131. One exception being the substitution of some chapters of the canonical scriptures for some chapters of the Apocrypha, especially of the book of Tobit.
132. The substitution of the Bible for the Mass destroyed the raison d'être of churches as the middle ages had made them.
133. It retains some relics of Fechner's influence; first, the theory of identity, according to which the difference between the physical and psychical is not a dualism, but everything is at once both; and secondly, the substitution of mathematical dependence for physical causality, except that, whereas Fechner only denied causality between physical and psychical, Mach rejects the entire distinction between causality and dependence, on the ground that " the law of causality simply asserts that the phenomena of Nature are dependent on one another."
134. He comes near to Hume's substitution of succession of phenomena for real causality.
135. It is a substitution of will for evidence as ground of assent, and a neglect of our consciousness that we often believe against our will (e.g.
136. With him, as with all his successors, the idea of a collective expedition of Europe for the recovery of the Holy Places was always associated with the sanguine hope of extinguishing the schism at Constantinople, its very centre, by the substitution of a Latin for a Byzantine domination.
137. The old sacrificial hymns were probably obscene and certainly nonsensical, and the substitution for them of the psalms, and of lections of the prophets and New Testament, was an enormous gain.
138. The chief difference between the two treatises is one which twenty years' experience in affairs could not but bring - the substitution of more cautious and guarded language, less dogmatic affirmation, more allowance for exceptions and deviations.
139. But it is clear that from a comparatively early period bannerets whose claims were founded on personal distinction rather than on feudal tenure gradually came to the front, and much the same process of substitution appears to have gone on in their case as that which we have marked in the case of simple knights.
140. It must suffice here to say that double flowers are most commonly the result of the substitution of brightly-coloured petals for stamens or pistils or both, and that a perfectly double flower where all the stamens and pistils are thus metamorphosed is necessarily barren.
141. Buyers of certain excellent classes of Swedish iron have been said to object even to the substitution of electricity for water-power as a means of driving the machinery of the forge.
142. Second, though the brittleness should be lessened somewhat by the decrease in the extent to which the continuity of the strong matrix is broken up by the graphite skeleton, yet this effect is outweighed greatly by that of the rapid substitution in the matrix of the brittle cementite for the' very ductile copper-like ferrite, so that the brittleness increases continuously (RS), from that of the very grey graphitic cast irons, which, like that of soapstone, is so slight that the metal can endure severe shock and even indentation without breaking, to that of the pure white cast iron which is about as brittle as porcelain.
143. All this is to the point with regard to Sumerian, because these very principles of inversion and substitution have been ' Prince, Materials for a Sumerian Lexicon, p. 14.
144. In the case of iodine, the substitution is effected by adding a warm solution of potassium iodide to the diazonium solution, no copper or cuprous salt being necessary; whilst for the production of nitriles a solution of potassium cuprous cyanide is used.
145. The annual levy is small and substitution is permitted.
146. But as soon as this was accomplished the government opened a comprehensive enquiry into the causes of dissatisfaction, which served as the basis of numerous social laws, and led eventually to the establishment of universal suffrage and the substitution in Belgium of a democratic for a middle-class regime.
147. Trans., 1892), with the substitution of thermo-couples (following Wiedemann) for mercury thermometers.
148. The principal difference from the manner described of making black tea lies in the omission of the withering and fermenting, and the substitution for those of a steaming or panning process.
149. One important factor in keeping down the amount per person is the substitution in use, which for a generation has been in progress, of the stronger teas of India and Ceylon for the old-fashioned weaker produce of China.
150. Africa Reichskanzler, This head official can be repre- East Africa seated by any other member of the Bundesrat named in a document of substitution.
151. By the constitution of the 16th of April 1871 every German is liable to service and no substitution is allowed.
152. Troopers are armed with lance, sword and carbine (for which in 1908 the substitution of a short rifle with bayonet was suggested).
153. Through the substitution of Roman law for the ancient feudal laws and customs. They had no place in the constitution or in the government of Germany, and they had already paralysed the administration by refusing to pay the taxes.
154. Was found in the establishment of Austrian supremacy in Italy and in the substitution of Austrian for Spanish domination in the Netherlands.
155. The operation begun in 1892 was therefore threefold: (1) the substitution of a gold for a silver standard; (2) the redemption of the Staatsnoten; (3) the resumption of cash payments by the bank.
156. To prevent substitution on the journey each recruit wears a string girdle sealed in lead.
157. It is, however, partially regaining the river trade in consequence of the compulsory substitution of drawbridges for the stationary railway bridges.
158. Viviparous plants are an illustration of substitution of vegetative buds for flower.
159. A monstrous intrigue was suspected for the alliance of the eastern autocrat with the Jacobinism of all Europe, which would have issued in the substitution of an all-powerful Russia for an all-powerful France.
160. Chlor-, brom-, iodoand fluor-benzoic acids are known and can be obtained by oxidizing the corresponding halogen toluenes, or from the amido acids, or by substitution.
161. In this then consists the significant turn given by St Paul in the Second Epistle to the Thessalonians to the whole conception, namely, in the substitution for the tyrant of the latter time who should persecute the Jewish people, of a pseudo-Messianic figure, who, establishing himself in the temple of God, should find credence and a following precisely among the Jews.
162. (At Oxford and Cambridge many fellowships are now awarded on the results of examination; it is sometimes stated, in defence of this system, that young men cannot be expected to carry out research in classics or philosophy.) On the other hand, the defenders of examinations reply that (xiii.) examinations are necessary in order to test the efficiency of schools to which grants of public money are given (this argument has become somewhat out of date owing to the recent substitution of " inspection " for examination as a test of the efficiency of schools; a combination of inspection and examination is also sometimes used); (xiv.) they serve as a necessary incentive to steady and concentrated work 1 (the reply made to this is that the incentive is a bad one, and that with efficient teachers it is unnecessary); (xv.) they show both student and teacher where they have failed (unnecessary for efficient teachers); (xvi.) though possibly harmful to the highest class of men, they are good for the mass (reply: no system which damages the highest class of men is tolerable); (xvii.) they are indispensable as an impartial means of selecting men for the civil service; (xviii.) in a difficult examination like the first class civil service examination the qualities of quickness of comprehension, industry, concentration, power of rapidly passing 1 The Oxford commissioners of 1852 reported that " the examinations have become the chief instruments not only for testing the proficiency of the students but also for stimulating and directing the studies of the place " (Report, p. 61).
163. If anything, the substitution of the careless pleasure-loving youth for Henry VII.
164. His temporary success reveals the strength of the party who wished to adopt the Greek way of life without consenting to the complete substitution of the authority of Antiochus for the prescriptions of the Mosaic Law.
165. Perceiving a molecular isonomy between them and the inorganic compounds of the metals from which they may be formed, he saw their true molecular type in the oxygen, sulphur or chlorine compounds of those metals, from which he held them to be derived by the substitution of an organic group for the oxygen, sulphur, &c. In this way they enabled him to overthrow the theory of conjugate compounds, and they further led him in 1852 to publish the conception that the atoms of each elementary substance have a definite saturation capacity, so that they can only combine with a certain limited number of the atoms of other elements.
166. A more important result of Athenian intervention was the substitution of the democratic government for the oligarchy which had succeeded the early monarchy; at any rate forty years later we find that Argos possessed complete democratic institutions.
167. The substitution of a positive or negative eye-piece for the simple convex or concave eye-lens, and of an achromatic object-glass for the simple object-lens, transforms these, early forms into the modern achromatic telescope.
168. The Cassegrain telescope differs from the Gregorian only in the substitution of a convex hyperboloidal mirror for a concave ellipsoidal mirror as the small speculum.
169. Refractor for the new observatory at Pulkovo, the only important change made by Fraunhofer's successors was, at Struve's suggestion, the substitution of a stone pier for the wooden stand in the original instrument.
170. The substitution of small incandescent electric lamps is an improvement now universally adopted.
171. But for the substitution of Assur for Marduk, the Assyrian pantheon was the same as that set up in the south, though some of the gods were endowed with attributes which differ slightly from those which mark the same gods in the south.
172. Fuming nitric acid gives a paratrinitro substitution derivative which on reduction gives paraleucaniline; the salt of the carbinol formed on oxidizing this substance is the valuable dye rosaniline.
173. The only deed of power, however, that is recorded of him, is that he opposed himself to the substitution of a Shiite head cadi for the Sunnite, so that Baha addaula had to content himself with giving to the Shiites a special judge, to whom he gave the title of naqib (superintendent).
174. The Japanese victories resulted for Korea in the solemn renunciation of Chinese suzerainty by the Korean king, the substitution of Japanese for Chinese influence, the introduction of many important reforms under Japanese advisers, and of checks on the absolutism of the throne.
175. Taking for ice and water the following numerical data, L = 674.7, 6 74.7, L 1 =595.2, L r = 79.5, R = o 11 03 cal./deg., po = 4.61 mm., s-S = 519 cal./deg., and assuming the specific heat of ice to be equal to that of steam at constant pressure (which is sufficiently approximate, since the term involving the difference of the specific heats is very small), we obtain the following numerical formulae, by substitution in (23), Ice..
176. In the Philippines advanced steps had been taken in the substitution of civil government for military occupation, and a governor-general, Judge William H.
177. To them it seemed the substitution of the authority of the Church for the authority of a living experience and of intellectual adherence to theological propositions for faith.
178. In default of her own issue, Anne's personal choice would probably have inclined at this time to her own family at St Germains, but the necessity of maintaining the Protestant succession caused the enactment of the Act of Settlement in 1701, and the substitution of the Hanoverian branch.
179. For purposes of substitution, the free element as a rule only works slowly on saturated compounds, but the reaction may be accelerated by the action of sunlight or on warming, or by using a "carrier."
180. In these latter cases the reaction may proceed in different directions; thus, with the aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorine in the cold or in the presence of a carrier substitutes in the benzene nucleus, but in the presence of sunlight or on warming, substitution takes place in the side chain.
181. The priestesses were called doves (7r XEtac) and Herodotus tells a story which he learned at Egyptian Thebes, that the oracle of Dodona was founded by an Egyptian priestess who was carried away by the Phoenicians, but says that the local legend substitutes for this priestess a black dove, a substitution in which he tries to find a rational meaning.
182. The town is situated on a height on the right bank of the Kali-Nadi, whence the substitution of the names Unchanagar and Bulandshahr (high town) for its earlier name of Baran, by which it is still sometimes called.
183. In order to produce a retardation from the greater velocity~ v2 to the less velocity Vf, it is necessary to apply to the body a resistance connected with the retardation and the time by an equation identical in every respect with equation (71), except by the substitution of a resistance for an effort; and in overcoming that resistance the body performs work to an amount determined by equation (72), putting Rds for Pas..
184. In the times to which the story of Peisistratus can be traced, the 1st century B.C., the substitution of the " tyrant " for the legislator was extremely natural.
185. Since by the universally accepted doctrine of karman (deed) or karmavipaka (" the maturing of deeds") man himself - either in his present, or some future, existence - enjoys the fruit of, or has to atone for, his former good and bad actions, there could hardly be room in Hindu pantheism for a belief in the remission of sin by divine grace or vicarious substitution.
186. In comparative morphology it provides many illustrations of important biological principles (such, for example, as substitution and change of function of organs), and throws new light upon, or at least points the way to new ideas of, the primitive relations of different organic systems in respect of their function and topography.
187. There are reasons for supposing that these funnels are vestiges of an ancient excretory system, which has given way by substitution to the excretory tubules described above.
188. This notochord represents the persistent primordial skeletal axis which, in the higher Craniata (though not so in the lower), gives way by substitution to the segmented vertebral column.
189. Way in repudiating the extreme claims of the Holy See, some even demanding the creation of a national hierarchy in merely nominal dependence on Rome, and advocating the substitution.
190. The outward sign of this was the substitution of the Roman ritual for the English pre-Reformation use hitherto followed in the services, while English Roman Catholicism became increasingly ultramontane in temper, a tendency much strengthened under Cardinal Manning.
191. It is very probable that Vindex had other aims in view than the deposition of Nero and the substitution of a fresh emperor in his place, and that the liberation of northern Gaul from Roman rule was part of his plan.'
192. These are, briefly speaking, the decay of those great fabrics, church and empire, which ruled the middle ages both as ideas and as realities; the development of nationalities and languages; the enfeeblement of the feudal system throughout Europe; the invention and application of paper, the mariner's compass, gunpowder, and printing; the exploration of continents beyond the ocean; and the substitution of the Copernican for the Ptolemaic system of astronomy.
193. The census as a method of valuation was revived; the important and productive land taxes were placed on a more definite footing; while, above all, the substitution of direct collection by state officials for the letting out by auction of the tax-collection to the companies of publicani was made general.
194. The character of the change may be best indicated as a substitution of private claims for public rights.
195. The substitution of the word " concurrence " for " call " about 1764 indicates the subsidiary and ornamental light in which the assent of the parishioners was now to be regarded.
196. These alkyl substitution products are important, for they lead to the synthesis of many organic compounds, on account of the fact that they can be hydrolysed in two different ways, barium hydroxide or dilute sodium hydroxide solution giving the socalled ketone hydrolysis, whilst concentrated sodium hydroxide gives the acid hydrolysis.
197. At the same time there is a gradual substitution of other metals for copper in the solution, because although copper plus other (more electro-positive) metals are constantly dissolving at the anode, only copper is deposited at the cathode.
198. KETENES, in chemistry, a group of organic compounds which may be considered as internal anhydrides of acetic acid and its substitution derivatives.
199. Hinduism has also impressed its language upon the province, and the vernacular Assamese possesses a close affinity to Bengali, with the substitution of s for the Bengali ch, of a guttural h for the Bengali h or sh, and a few other dialectic changes.
200. The chief events of his reign were a successful war against Tatar invaders and the substitution of the new city of Sultania as capital ror Tabriz, which had been Ghazans headquarters.
201. The substitution of the "Gallican" for the "Roman" version of the Psalter) the Breviary hitherto used exclusively by the Roman court, and with it gradually swept out of Europe all the earlier partial books (Legendaries, Responsories), &c., and to some extent the local Breviaries, like that of Sarum.
202. Jevons arrived quite early in his career at the doctrines that constituted his most characteristic and original contributions to economics and logic. The theory of utility, which became the keynote of his general theory of political economy, was practically formulated in a letter written in 1860; and the germ of his logical principles of the substitution of similars may be found in the view which he propounded in another letter written in 1861, that "philosophy would be found to consist solely in pointing out the likeness of things."
203. In 1866 what he regarded as the great and universal principle of all reasoning dawned upon him; and in 1869 he published a sketch of this fundamental doctrine under the title of The Substitution of Similars.
204. In this work Jevons embodied the substance of his earlier works on pure logic and the substitution of similars; he also enunciated xv.
205. When a great fire broke out at Prague in 1541, which destroyed all the state documents, Ferdinand obtained the consent of the estates to the substitution of a charter stating that he had been recognized as king in consequence of the hereditary rights of his wife Anna, in the place of the former one, which had stated that he had become king by election.
206. Fresh doubts arose as to the effect of this omission; and a correspondence on the subject took place between the British government and the government of the republic before the outbreak of hostilities in South Africa, the former maintaining that the preamble of 1881, by which alone any self government was granted, was still in force, and therefore that the suzerainty - whatever it involved - remained; the Transvaal government, on the other hand, contending that the suzerainty had been abolished by the substitution of the 1884 convention for that of 1881.
207. R ai.orr tv, to bend), properly the substitution of one thing for another, hence any alteration or variation, so applied to the moon's passing from one phase to another.
208. This very naturally resulted in a too frequent substitution of clerical concubinage for marriage; and the resultant evils form one of the commonest themes of complaint in church councils of the later middle ages.'
209. The crisis was past, but the change which took place by the substitution of M.
210. It is a very stable compound, chromic and nitric acids being without action upon it, whilst the halogens only yield substitution derivatives with difficulty.
211. As regards the isomerism of the pyridine substitution products, three mono-derivatives are known, the different positions being indicated by the Greek, letters a, s and y, as shown in the inset formula.
212. But the decrease lies mainly in the number of agricultural labourers; the number of farmers is not notably affected, and the increasing substitution of machinery for manual labour must be taken into consideration.
213. The payments which the county council have to make in substitution for the local grants formerly made out of Imperial funds include payments for or towards the remuneration of the teachers in poorlaw schools and public vaccinators; school fees paid for children sent from a workhouse to a public elementary school; half of the salaries of the medical officer of health and the inspector of nuisances of district councils; the remuneration of registrars for births and deaths; the maintenance of pauper lunatics; half of the cost of the pay and clothing of the police of the county, and of each borough maintaining a separate police force.
214. As it is matter of universal agreement that the problem of being must be attacked indirectly through the problem of knowledge, this substitution may be regarded as an advance, more especially as it implies that the fact of experience, or of self-conscious existence, is the chief fact to be dealt with.
215. The substitution of potassium chlorate for pyrolusite is recommended when calcium chloride is present in the bittern.
216. In 1890 he reaped the fruits of his labours, and nine years later he was destined to witness the abrogation of the old treaties, and the substitution in their place of conventions which place Japan on terms of equality with the European states.
217. There was no organized resistance to the conqueror within Bedfordshire, though the Domesday survey reveals an almost complete substitution of Norman for English holders.
218. Kaolin may with advantage be used in addition to or in part substitution for sand, because the double silicate thus formed is more fusible than the single silicate of lime.
219. For his next four pieces, which were comedies, there is claimed the introduction of some important improvements, such as the choosing for scenes places well known in actual life (as in the Galerie du palais), and the substitution of the soubrette in place of the old inconvenient and grotesque nurse.
220. The great labour and cost incurred in procuring stones in adequate quantities, and the difficulty of carting them in wet seasons, soon led to the substitution of "tiles," and soles of burnt earthenware.
221. The substitution of cylindrical pipes for the original horse-shoe tiles has still further lowered the cost and increased the efficiency and permanency of drainage works.
222. Numerous substitution products of quinoline are known, and the positions in the molecule are generally designated in accordance with the scheme shown in the inset formula: the letters o, m, p, a, standing for ortho-, meta-, Para-, and ana-.
223. The following technical terms will indicate the procedure in distress with time: Aurfocre (= demand of payment, stating the amount in presence of witnesses); apad (= delay); athgabail (= the actual seizure); anad (= delay after seizure, the thing remaining in the debtor's possession); toxal (= the taking away of the thing seized); fast (= notice to the debtor of the amount due, the or pound in which the thing seized is impounded, and the name of the law agent); dithim (= delay during which the thing is in pound); lobad (= destruction or forfeiture of the debtor's ownership and substitution of the creditor's ownership).
224. Irrigation has made a surer future for limited areas, however, and the introduction of drought-resisting crops and the substitution of dairy and livestock interests in the place of agriculture have brightened the outlook in the western counties, whose population increased rapidly after 1900.
225. Such a revolution might have ended in the substitution of the despotism of a class for the despotism of a man.
226. The substitution of the cope for the chasuble in many of the functions for which the latter had been formerly used was primarily due to the comparative convenience of a vestment opened at the front, and so leaving the arms free.
227. Many substituted hydroxylamines are known, substitution taking a place either in the or a position (NH 2 OH).
228. The doctrine of penal substitution in the Atonement, as usually conceived, seems to point in the same direction as predestinarianism.
229. 1 The substitution of Beelzebub for Beelzebul by the Syriac, Vulgate and other versions implies the identification of the New Testament arch-fiend with the god of Ekron; this substitution, however, may be due to the influence of the Aramaic B`el-debaba, " adversary," sometimes held to be the original of these names.
230. - Among the changes made during the Revolution was the substitution of a new calendar, usually called the revolutionary or republican calendar, for the prevailing Gregorian system.
231. Further, he finds in the series of antecedents and consequents capable of mathematical and spatial determination, which certain men of science present to him as their final account of his physical and psychical history, no real explanation of the facts: he is far more inclined to look for an explanation of the efficacy of causal changes in the categories of will and purpose for which they are a substitution.
232. This substitution of hypothetical history for direct analysis of the moral sense is really older than the utilitarianism of Paley and Bentham, which it has so profoundly modified.
233. In fact, no acceptable scientific criterion emerges, and the outcome of Spencer's attempt to ascertain the laws of life and the conditions of existence is either a restatement of the dictates of the moral consciousness in vague and cumbrous quasi-scientific phraseology, or the substitution of the meaningless test of " survivability " as a standard of perfection for the usual and intelligible standards of " good " and " right."
234. The legitimate inference which should follow would be the denial of the validity of those moral laws which have hitherto been regarded as absolute in character, and the substitution for all customary moral terms of an entirely new set based upon biological considerations.
235. CH(OH) � CH 3 (isopropyl alcohol), when the substitution is effected on the middle carbon atom.
236. Each of these hydro-carbons gives rise to two alcohols: n-butane gives a primary and a secondary; and iso-butane a primary, when the substitution takes place in one of the methyl groups, and a tertiary, when the hydrogen atom of the: CH group is substituted.
237. An incorrect substitution of one name for another, a reading which gave an impossible date, insertions of spurious laws or decrees, were points which few readers would stop to notice.
238. Grant from the Irish parliament, the king promised certain graces, of which the chief were security for titles, free trade, and the substitution of an oath of allegiance for that of supremacy.
239. The same reign saw also an important constitutional change, the substitution of a board of patronomi for the ephors, whose power had become almost despotic, and the curtailment of the functions exercised by the gerousia; these measures were, however, cancelled by Antigonus.
240. These two tendencies, were destined to strive ~against one another during an entire century (613714), and to occasion two periods of violent conflict, which, divided by a kind of renascence of royalty, were to end at last in the triumphant substitution of the Austrasian mayors for royalty and aristocracy alike.
241. When the abdication of Christina of Sweden caused a quarrel between Charles Gustavus of Sweden and John Casimir of Poland, by which the emperor and the elector of Brandenburg hoped to profit, Mazarin (August 15, 1658) leagued the Rhine princes against them; while at the same time the substitution of Pope Alexander VII.
242. Assembly, in order to reduce the number of hostile forces, voted for the exile of all priests who had refused to swear to the Civil Constitution and the substitution of a body of twenty thousand volunteer national guards, under the authority of Paris, for the kings constitutional guard (May 27June 8, 1792).
243. To these latter were due the substitution of the Republican for the Gregorian calendar, and the secular Feasts of Reason (November 19, 1793).
244. The outcome of this positivism is the substitution for revealed religion of a religion of humanity - according to Huxley "Catholicism minus Christianity" - in which God is replaced by Humanity.
245. The substitution of Hades for Hephaestus is due to the fact that Hades was regarded as the husband of Persephone.
246. The substitution, in 1670, of mercury for water completed the modern thermometer.
247. The substitution of these interdental and guttural sounds for the surd and sonant spirants respectively did certainly not take place simultaneously, but the vacillations of the old orthography, and afterwards the decision of the Spanish Academy, which suppressed x (= I; x was retained for cs) and allows only c and g before e and i, I and j before a, a, a, make it impossible for us to follow, with the help of the written texts, the course of the transformation.
248. Root, of Medina, Ohio, who suggested the substitution of embossed rollers in lieu of flat plates, in order to increase the output of foundation and lessen its cost to the bee-keeper.
249. In a paper on the atomic theory, published so early as 1826, he anticipated to a remarkable extent some ideas which are frequently supposed to belong to a later period; and the continuation of these studies led him to the ideas about substitution ("metalepsis") which were developed about 1839 into the theory ("Older Type Theory") that in organic chemistry there are certain types which remain unchanged even when their hydrogen is replaced by an equivalent quantity of a haloid element.
250. Gunpowder, too, was invented; and now that the weight of the cavalry soldier was diminished by the substitution of lighter armour, a quicker and better bred horse was thought desirable for military service.
251. Many substitution derivatives are known: the monosubstitution derivatives being capable of existing in three isomeric forms. Of the disubstitution derivatives the most important are those derived from diparadiaminodiphenyl or benzidine.
252. The substitution of the elector for the pope as head of the church; the introduction of Roman law with its emphasis on a central authority and a central administration; the determined and successful efforts to avoid any partition of the electorate; and the increasing tendency of the separate sections of the diet to act independently; all tended in this direction.
253. The substitution of a permanent excise for the subsidies granted from time to time by the estates also tended to increase his independence, and the officials or Steuerrdthe, appointed byihim to collect this tax in the towns, gradually absorbed many of the administrative functions of the local authorities.
254. They realized if the text were based on substitution, the more frequently used characters were most likely replacements for more frequently used letters, such as vowels.
255. Amended by the substitution of the following for Regulation 24: " 24.
256. The amino acid substitution matrix contains match values for the comparison of all possible amino acid substitution matrix contains match values for the comparison of all possible amino acids.
257. The reaction is a substitution reaction; a hydrogen atom of methane is swapped for a chlorine atom.
258. I just think there are better ways of understanding the atonement and that penal substitution has some flaws that need reconsideration.
259. Substitution Policy If having confirmed attendance you find you are unable to attend the event our cancelation policy will apply.
260. If methyl benzene is reacted with chlorine in the presence of uv light, substitution takes place in the alkyl side chain.
261. Bimolecular homolytic substitution (see Figure 12 ), rather than an addition reaction.
262. This method is still called the Caesar cipher, regardless the size of the shift used for the substitution.
263. Group task to decipher full page substitution cipher full page substitution cipher message.
264. Cypherid not include numerals nor word replacements, but was a straight-forward alphabetic substitution cipher.
265. We have also been attempting to estimate the rate of adaptive amino acid substitution and the proportion of mutations which are slightly deleterious.
266. Elasticity of substitution is.
267. Electrophilic substitution?
268. Electrophilic substitution menu below.
269. Fluorite structure is that it can sustain a high degree of substitution.
270. The gap opening penalty involves the of a negative scoring penalty to the substitution matrix for the first residue in a sequence alignment gap opening penalty involves the of a negative scoring penalty to the substitution matrix for the first residue in a sequence alignment gap.
271. Homology recognition using environment-specific substitution tables and structure-dependent gap penalties.
272. Import substitution, they were to do with sustainability generally.
273. We look at denotational semantics, using sets and functions, the substitution lemma and equational theory.
274. Market The market for Scottish mohair is large, taking into account the potential for import substitution.
275. Nucleotide substitution per 10 9 years.
276. Substitution with cheaper ingredients: adding low cost ingredients to a more expensive product, e.g. diluting olive oil with vegetable oils.
277. Using techniques of stop-motion, duplication and substitution the works extend an invitation to the audience to be willing participants in their fictions.
278. Penal substitution is a case in point.
279. Admittedly, it's not penal substitution... And if Julian of Norwich or (as Jody says) Matt.
280. That substitution creates a vacancy similar to a hole in a p-type semiconductor, which emits single photons when excited by a laser.
281. The NO 2 + released undergoes substitution into the ring.
282. The 1991 Regulations are hereby amended by the substitution of the following for Regulation 24: " 24.
283. It would help if you first read the page What is nucleophilic substitution?
284. Penal substitution is a topic that is being kicked around the church at the moment.
285. It would help if you first read the page What is electrophilic substitution?
286. Introduction to use of isotopic substitution in infrared spectroscopy.
287. Previous stilbene rotaxanes have been prepared by aromatic nucleophilic substitution [5] and by slipping macrocycles over pre-formed dumbbells [6] .
288. substitution cipher message.
289. substitution reaction; a hydrogen atom of methane is swapped for a chlorine atom.
290. substitution matrix contains match values for the comparison of all possible amino acids.
291. substitution variable " $ others " shows where to put the list of other contributors.
292. The amino acid substitution matrix contains match values for the comparison of all possible amino acids.
293. Harry Studholme reminded the Board that the issues were not just about import substitution, they were to do with sustainability generally.
294. The collection of reasons is made available in the $ REASONS keyword substitution in the reply file.
295. Supply-side substitution is not an economic option with the older chemical technology, which produces a 96% purity.
296. Tilde substitution will only be performed if it is necessary to complete the command.
297. Turpentine contact dermatitis has declined in countries where legislation has resulted in the substitution of other solvents.
298. Variable substitution.
299. The growth of the lace industry in the 17th century hastened the process by leading to the substitution of broad bands of lace as decoration; occasionally, as in a magnificent specimen preserved at South Kensington, nearly half the vestment is thus Apparelled Alb in the South Kensington Museum.
300. Amongst the most marked features of the change that has taken place since 1875 are the growth of religious and philanthropic establishments; the settlement of Jewish colonies from Bokhara, Yemen and Europe; the migration of Europeans, old Moslem families, and Jews from the city to the suburbs; the increased vegetation, due to the numerous gardens and improved methods of cultivation; the substitution of timber and red tiles for the vaulted stone roofs which were so characteristic of the old city; the striking want of beauty, grandeur, and harmony with their environment exhibited by most of the new buildings; and the introduction of wheeled transport, which, cutting into the soft limestone, has produced mud and dust to an extent previously unknown.
301. The substitution of " civilians," rather than common lawyers, for canonists (civilians, hitherto, not an important body in England) had important consequences (see Maitland, op. cit.
302. The Alps have 172 endemic species and at least 15 genera that are not found in the Pyrenees, while the latter range counts about 100 endemic species with several (six or seven) genera not found in the Alps Drude has accordingly suggested the substitution of the term High-mountain floras for Alpine, which he regards as misleading.
303. It consisted essentially in the adoption of Delauny's final numerical expressions for longitude, latitude and parallax, with a symbolic term attached to each number, the value of which was to be determined by substitution in the equations of motion.
304. Damiani advocated the substitution of flagellation for the recitation of the penitential psalms, and drew up a scale according to which 1000 strokes were equivalent to ten psalms, and 15,000 to the whole psalter.
305. The decade from 1896 until 1905, inclusive, saw huge sums spent on yards, passing tracks, grade reduction, elimination of curves, substitution of large locomotives and cars for small ones, &c. During those ten years, the route mileage increased 34,991 m., or 17%, while the mileage of second, third, fourth and yard tracks and sidings increased 32,666 m., or nearly 57%.
306. The substitution of the Persian for the Median power, which took place with the advent of Cyrus, seems to indicate merely the pre-eminence of a particular tribe and not conquest by another race.
307. The members of the order present the same wide range of superficial appearance as do the Pectinibranchiate Streptoneura, forms carrying well-developed spiral shells and large mantle-skirts being included in the group, together with flattened or cylindrical slug-like forms. But in respect of the substitution of other parts for the mantle-skirt and for the gill which the more degenerate Opisthobranchia exhibit, this order stands alone.
308. He had begun his career at the bar by pleading against the feudal droit du colombier, and when he was sent by his fellow-citizens to the states-general of 1789 he demanded the abolition of nobility and the substitution of the title of king of the French and the Navarrese for king of France and Navarre, and helped to establish the civil constitution of the clergy.
309. Dumas gave especial attention to such substitutions, named metalepsy (µeraXntks, exchange); and framed the following empirical laws to explain the reactions: - (1) a body containing hydrogen when substituted by a halogen loses one atom of hydrogen for every atom of halogen introduced; (2) the same holds if oxygen be present, except that when the oxygen is present as water the latter first loses its hydrogen without replacement, and then substitution according to (1) ensues.
310. It is obvious that we have derived three combinations of carbon with hydrogen, characterized by containing a single, double, and triple linkage; and from each of these, by the substitution of a methyl group for a hydrogen atom, compounds of the same nature result.
311. The substitution of a hydrogen atom by the hydroxyl group generally occasions a rise in boiling-point at about Ioo°.
312. 81° 123° 112° 83° 42° - II° - 29° The replacement of one negative group by another is accompanied by a change in the boiling-point, which is independent of the compound in which the substitution is effected, and solely conditioned by the nature of the replaced and replacing groups.
313. Making this substitution, and dividing by d, the density of the substance, we obtain a/d = (N 2 - I)/(N2+2)d.
314. It may be generally concluded that the substitution of alkyl, nitro, hydroxyl, and haloid groups for hydrogen in a molecule occasions a deformation of crystal structure in one definite direction, hence permitting inferences as to the configuration of the atoms composing the crystal; while the nature and degree of the alteration depends (1) upon the crystal structure of the unsubstituted compound; (2) on the nature of the substituting radicle; (3) on the complexity of the substituted molecule; and (4) on the orientation of the substitution derivative.
315. The principal feature is the suppression of the direct channel of the sap, and the substitution of four, or more commonly two, mother branches, so laid to the wall that the central angle contains about 90°.
316. His Roman name has also survived in a hibernicized form, Cothrige, with the common substitution of Irish c for Brythonic p (cf.
317. Popular passion confused the issues, and raged as violently against the substitution of the surplice for the Geneva gown in the pulpit as against the revival of the "mass vestments."
318. Now the determinant has the value - {AiA11+A2A22+A3A33+2A2A3A23+2A3AIA31+2A1A2Al2{ = -Eata r r-2EA r A 8 A rs in general, and hence by substitution {A I V A n+ A 211 A22+��� +A71 Ann}2.
319. Similarly, for the order 3, we take 1 v Ab= -v 1 A =1 +x2 + 1, 2 + � - A 1 and the adjoint is 1+A v +A� -� +Av -v +A� 1+11 2 A +/-tv pt+AvA +�v 1 +1,2 leading to the orthogonal substitution Abx1 = (1 +A 2 - / 22 - v 2) X l +2(v+A�)X2 +2(/1 +Av)X3 1bx2 = 2(A� - v)Xl+(1 +�2 - A2 - v2)X2 / +2(Fiv+A)X3 Abx3 = 2(Av +�)X1 +2(/lv-A)X2+(1+v2-A2- (12)X3.
320. Is transformed into the operator d 1 by the substitution (ac, al, a2, ���as, ���) _ (ao, Xoai, X 6 X i a 2, ���, XcX1..%s_las,���), so that the theory of the general operator is coincident with that of the particular operator d1.
321. If the variables of the quantic f(x i, x 2) be subjected to the linear transformation x1 = a12Et2, x2 = a21E1+a2252, E1, being new variables replacing x1, x 2 and the coefficients an, all, a 21, a22, termed the coefficients of substitution (or of transformation), being constants, we arrive at a transformed quantic f% 1tn n n-1 n-2 52) = a S +(1)a11 E 2 + (2)a2E1 E 2 +��� in the new variables which is of the same order as the original quantic; the new coefficients a, a, a'...a are linear functions 0 1 2 n of the original coefficients, and also linear functions of products, of the coefficients of substitution, of the nth degree.
322. Which have different coefficients, the same variables, and are of the same or different degrees in the variables; we may transform them all by the same substitution, so that they become _, _, _, _, _, _, f(a °, a, a 2, ...; (b 0, b, b 2, ...; 1, S2),....
323. For the substitution rr xl =A 11 +1 2 12, 52=A21+�2E2, of modulus A1 �i = (Al�.2-A2�1) = (AM), A 2 �2 the quadratic form a k xi -1-2a 1 x i x 2 +a 2 4 = x =f (x), becomes A41 +2A1E16 =At = OW, where Ao = aoA i +2a1AiA2 +a2Az, _ _ A 1 = ao A l�l +ai(A1/.22+A2�1) +7,2X2/22, A2 = ao�l +2a1�1/�2 +a 2�2 � We pass to the symbolic forms a:= (aixi+a2x2) 2, A 2 = (A 151+ A 26) 2/ by writing for ao, al, a2 the symbols ai, a 1 a 2, a?
324. Making the substitution in any symbolic product the only determinant factors that present themselves in the numerator are of the form (af), (bf), (cf),...and every symbol a finally appears in the form.
325. If the senses of rotation be opposite we have the skew orthogonal substitution x1 =cos0Xi+sinOX2r x 2 = sin °Xicos OX2r of modulus -1.
326. Then of course (AB) = (ab) the fundamental fact which appertains to the theory of the general linear substitution; now here we have additional and equally fundamental facts; for since A i = Xa i +,ia2, A2= - �ay + X a2, AA =A?-}-A2= (X2 +M 2)(a i+ a z) =aa; A B =AjBi+A2B2= (X2 +, U2)(albi+a2b2) =ab; (XA) = X i A2 - X2 Ai = (Ax i + /-Lx2) (- /-jai + Xa2) - (- / J.x i '+' Axe) (X a i +%Ga^2) = (X2 +, u 2) (x a - = showing that, in the present theory, a a, a b, and (xa) possess the invariant property.
327. In the numerous degenerate forms simplification occurs by obliteration of the demarcations of somites and the fusion of body-regions, together with a gradual suppression of the lamelliferous respiratory organs and the substitution for them of tracheae, which, in their turn, in the smaller and most reduced members of the group, may also disappear.
328. The suggested substitution in the text of Pausanias of the 28th for the 8th Olympiad (i.e.
329. When Christian scholars began to study the Old Testament in Hebrew, if they were ignorant of this general rule or regarded the substitution as a piece of Jewish superstition, reading what actually stood in the text, they would inevitably pronounce the name Jehovah.
330. The oldest Greek versions (Septuagint), from the third century B.C., consistently use Kupcos, " Lord," where the Hebrew has Jhvh, corresponding to the substitution of Adonay for Jhvh in reading the original; in books written in Greek in this period (e.
331. The simplest of all include: (z) the synthesis of sodium oxalate by passing carbon dioxide over metallic sodium heated to 3500 - 360'; (2) the synthesis of potassium formate from moist carbon dioxide and potassium, potassium carbonate being obtained simultaneously; (3) the synthesis of potassium acetate and propionate from carbon dioxide and sodium methide and sodium ethide; (4) the synthesis of aromatic acids by the interaction of carbon dioxide, sodium and a bromine substitution derivative; and (5) the synthesis of aromatic oxy-acids by the interaction of carbon dioxide and sodium phenolates (see Salicylic Acid).
332. A similar change in the contour lines may result from the substitution of lines in fathoms for those originally drawn in metres, and hence it is extremely desirable that specific names should only be given to such features as are pronounced enough to appear on maps drawn with either unit.
333. The unity of opposites translated into its most abstract terms PP ing as the " identity of being and not-being," the principle in that the " real is the rational," the apparent substitution of " bloodless " categories for the substance of concrete reality gave it an air of paradox in the eyes of metaphysicians while physicists were scandalized by the premature attempts at a complete philosophy of nature and history.
334. Yet the momentous change which finally crushed out Congregationalism, by substitution of legal coercion for moral suasion as the final means of securing unity, came relatively late in the history of the ancient Catholic Church.
335. They included Thomas Goodwin and Philip Nye, who had practised this polity during exile abroad and now strove to avert the substitution of Presbyterian uniformity for the Episcopacy which, as the ally of absolutism, had alienated its own children (see Presbyterianism).
336. With the passing of time the early enthusiasm waned, the expectation of the immediate return of Christ was widely given up, the conviction of the Spirit's presence became less vivid, and the conflict with heresy in the 2nd century led to the substitution of official control for the original freedom (see below).
337. The recension (see Driver, Notes on the Hebrew Text of Me Books of Samuel, p. 52) is characterized by the substitution of synonyms for the words originally used by the Septuagint, and by the frequent occurrence of double renderings, but its chief claim to critical importance rests on the fact that " it embodies renderings not found in other MSS.
338. Naturalist, 1906, pp. 7 6 9-795, 82 9- 8 59) finds that foremost in the long series of causes which lead to extinction are the grander environmental changes, such as physiographic changes, diminished or contracted land areas, substitution of insular for continental conditions; changes of climate and secular lowering of temperature accompanied by deforestation and checking of the food supply; changes influencing the mating period as well as fertility; changes causing increased humidity, which in turn favours enemies among insect life.
339. The substitution of the Bible for the Mass destroyed the raison d'être of churches as the middle ages had made them.
340. Eventually that belief was general, as is proved by the substitution of the normal feminine plural (for the supposed masculine) in the alternative form Beth Nahrawatha (e.g.
341. Thus, in the English " Backslang," which is nothing more than ordinary English deliberately inverted, in the similar Arabic jargon used among school children in Syria and in the Spanish thieves' dialect, the principles of inversion and substitution play the chief part.
342. Those numbered 11-22, written in 344, are almost all directed against the Jews; the subjects are circumcision, passover, the sabbath, persuasion (the encyclical letter referred to above), distinction of meats, the substitution of the Gentiles for the Jews, that Christ is the Son of God, virginity and holiness, whether the Jews have been finally rejected or are yet to be restored, provision for the poor, persecution, death and the last times.
343. "Change" is particularly used of coins of lower denomination given in substitution for those of larger denomination or for a note, cheque, &c., and also for the balance of a sum paid larger than that which is due.
344. " On the other hand, the substitution, in 1852, in Montenegro of the title of " prince and lord " (knyaz i gospodar) for the ancient title of vladika (archbishop) certainly.
345. CH(OH) � CH 3 (isopropyl alcohol), when the substitution is effected on the middle carbon atom.
346. It was begun by establishing a caflrans- network of roads with Lyons as the central point, format Ion and by the development of a, prosperous urban life ~1fR~man in the increasingly wealthy Roman colonies; and it was continued by the disintegration into independent cities of nearly all the Gaulish states of the Narbonnaise, together with the substitution of the Roman collegial magistracy for the isolated magistracy of the Gauls.
347. One of the most notable differences between normal Portugiiese and Gahician is the substitution of the surd spirant in place of the sonant spirant for the Lat.
348. " The Genius of the Arts " (1877), a relief, is in the Tuileries, in substitution for Barye's " Napoleon III."; a similar work for the tomb of Michelet (1879) is in the cemetery of Pere la Chaise; and in the same year Mercie produced the statue of Arago with accompanying reliefs, now erected at Perpignan.
349. The first great impulse given to Birmingham was the substitution of coal for wood in the smelting of iron.
350. Penal substitution is a topic that is being kicked around the church at the moment.
351. Previous stilbene rotaxanes have been prepared by aromatic nucleophilic substitution [5] and by slipping macrocycles over pre-formed dumbbells [6 ].
352. The substitution variable " $ others " shows where to put the list of other contributors.
353. Supply-side substitution is not an economic option with the older chemical technology, which produces a 96% purity.
354. Note that tilde substitution will only be performed if it is necessary to complete the command.
355. The incidence of turpentine contact dermatitis has declined in countries where legislation has resulted in the substitution of other solvents.
356. Everything in between is treated as an SQL statement and parsed for variable substitution.
357. The substitution of a pond for a wet woodland, is not ' eco '.
358. While of course there isn't any substitution for you in the eyes of your baby, plenty of people can adequately care for your baby if you offer them the chance.
359. Always check the back of the pattern you're using or an experienced seamstress/craft person if you are unsure of a particular substitution.
360. Sometimes kittens just don't understand that the potted ficus isn't an appropriate substitution if they don't feel like going all that way to the official box.
361. Often a simple substitution of a starch for a lower carb veggie will suffice to make a recipe low carb, or you can swap out your hamburger bun for a lettuce leaf.
362. The substitution ration would be 1/3 cup of agave syrup for one cup of sugar.
363. With just a small substitution you can create your own sugar and dairy-free recipes.
364. Central ingredient - For recipes where eggs are the central ingredient like for omelets, quiches or egg sandwiches, the best choice will be a tofu substitution.
365. Some of the tastiest meatless meals don't rely on substitution or complicated ingredients.
366. Though this type of drug screening method is a classic, there have been many problems lately with urine substitution or adulteration.
367. Domesticated dogs still have the instinct to den, and a crate can be a great substitution for that space.
368. An even one-to-one substitution is fine.
369. While roller coaster videos can give fans a great view of a ride without waiting in line, spending money, or risking health problems, they aren't the perfect substitution.
370. I find these free games a nice substitution when I don't have access to my video consoles or a cool PC game.
371. The mutations in this gene are point mutations because they involve a change (either deletion, substitution, or insertion) at one specific component of a gene.
372. They can range from slow acquisition of language to sound substitution or stuttering to the inability to understand or produce and language at all.
373. Avoidance or substitution of known or suspected allergens or irritating substances is the best prevention.
374. Edwardian - If you are looking for an Edwardian engagement ring, the metal must be platinum (though white gold is a great substitution and far less expensive).
375. Moreover, the substitution is only permitted when individuals with celiac disease are part of the parish.
376. Cornbread is also a safe and tasty gluten-free substitution.
377. In most recipes, the substitution won't be noticeable.
378. The easiest substitution is a team name - if the online cheer is for the Wildcats, and your team is the Bulldogs, there's a substitution right there.
379. When protein is used for glucose substitution it denies protein for immune defense and other uses.
380. Push the barbell straight up, making sure to keep the back straight (using a lifting belt is a good supplement, but not a substitution to keeping the abs tense).
381. This is shown in the case of the chloracetic acids: According to van 't Hoff the substitution of chlorine atoms into a methyl group occasions the following increments: The introduction of chlorine, however, may involve a fall in the boiling-point, as is recorded by Henry in the case of the chlorinated acetonitriles: NC CH 3.
382. The amino derivatives are stable bases which readily yield substitution derivatives when acted upon by the halogen elements.
383. From n-butane we may derive, by a similar substitution of methyl groups, the two hydrocarbons: (I) CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3, and (2) CH 3.
384. On the other hand, if substitution be effected in the one ring, and the affinities in that ring become attracted inwards, as apparently happens in the case of benzene, the adjoining ring should become relatively more active because the common affinities would act less into it.
385. Hence, unless the radical introduced be one which exercises a special attractive influence, substitution should take place in preference in the previously unsubstituted ring.
386. The fifth compound, on the other hand, does not behave as an unsaturated aliphatic compound, but its deportment is that of a nucleus, many substitution derivatives being capable of synthesis.
387. A five substitution rule was brought in for the delayed conclusion to the 2019-20 campaign, but normal service will soon resume.
388. Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Minister Nitin Gadkari at a virtual CII event while addressing ‘[email protected] summit - mission 2022’ on August 08 said that India needs to focus on import substitution, ...
389. We study the feasibility of a novel AlN fabrication technique by using the Al/GaN substitution reaction method. The substitution method we propose here consists of an Al deposition process on a ...
390. Premier League clubs have voted against carrying over the five substitution rule for the 2020-21 season after the rule was introduced after the restart to safeguard players from injuries. Following ...
391. The Premier Soccer League (PSL) has clarified the contentious issue of the substitutions during matches after Fifa changed the rules in May in the midst of the coronavirus pandemic that disrupted ...
392. Premier League clubs have voted to return to just three substitutions per game after increasing to five for Project Restart ...
393. The 20 Premier League clubs have decided to scrap the controversial substitution rule with just over a month to go until the start of the 2020/21 campaign. The new season has been pushed back to ...
394. The Premier Soccer League has adopted the five substitution rule which will be in place for the remainder of the season.
395. CAPE TOWN – The Premier Soccer League (PSL) on Tuesday announced a change in the rule on match substitution for the remainder of the 2019/2020 season. The league is set to re-start in four days’ time, ...
396. substitution sentence examples. substitution. The conversation turned back to the substitution of the skeleton and the theft of the small bone from their room. 44. 31. of wires in substitution for those of which they had been joint users. 24. 12. CH(CH 3) CH 3, isobutane, substitution occurring at the medial atom. 18. 12.
397. 167+1 sentence examples: 1. We use saccharin in substitution for sugar. 2. In my experience a straight substitution of carob for chocolate doesn'twork. 3. Thereafter, however, there has been a dominant substitution effect. 4. For addition or substitu
398. 167+1 sentence examples: 1. In this example, variable substitution is used for the ID in case your code needs to access the button through its ID. 2. Substitution, gas lift and pumping are also introduced as zonal production test. 3. We find that tec
399. Sentence Examples. At the same time, The mere substitution of the definite for the indefinite article is capable of changing entirely the meaning of a sentence. Growth is by substitution at the proximal end and by subperiosteal lamellation circumferentially.
400. Examples of import substitution in a sentence, how to use it. 16 examples: This provides a valuable study of a place that had benefited under the previous…
401. Examples of substitution in a sentence. The substitution of one teacher for another caused quite a bit of chaos in the classroom. 🔊 After one of the players was injured, a substitution was made on the field. 🔊 The chef assured us that an herb substitution could be made since we don’t like chives. 🔊
402. Verbal substitution is realized through an auxiliary verb (do, be, have), sometimes together with another substitute term such as so or the same. Example (134) shows the substitution of looks pretty good in the first clause with so does in the second one. The next example, (135) is one of clausal substitution, where so substitutes the previous
403. Sentence examples for in substitution of from inspiring English sources. 60 / 115. exact 20. related RELATED in lieu of. in inversion of. in turnover of. in place of. in introduction of. in maintenance of. in abandonment of. in reimbursement of. in alternative of. in switching of
404. substitution - English Grammar Today - a reference to written and spoken English grammar and usage - Cambridge Dictionary
405. substitution sentence examples:1.a linguistic analysis is made of nominal Substitution, which is classified in this paper into three es from a structural model suggest that this unintended consequence is attributable to standard substitution results suggest that there is no wealth effect in t
406. substitution Mutation Examples Sickle-Cell Anemia. The blood disease Sickle-cell anemia is caused by a simple substitution mutation. In the mutation, a single nucleotide is replaced in the portion of DNA which codes for a unit of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a multi-protein complex, responsible for carrying oxygen and supporting the shape of blood
407. Examples of how to use the word substitution in a sentence. Definitions, synonyms and translations are also available.
408. substitution is a type of cohesion that maintains relations on the lexico-grammatical level of a sentence or a sentence in a text. It is performed by using a substitute that is a sort of counter employed in place of the repetition of a particular item.
409. substitution definition is - the act, process, or result of substituting one thing for another. How to use substitution in a sentence.
410. Translations of the phrase A substitution from english to finnish and examples of the use of "A SUBSTITUTION" in a sentence with their translations: NYPD databases and putting up a substitution .
411. substitution definition: The definition of a substitution is a replacement. (noun) An example of a substitution is a teacher filling in for an absent teacher.
412. substitution definition: the act of substituting or state of being substituted | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples
413. The substitution effect refers to the change in demand for a good as a result of a change in the relative price of the good compared to that of other substitute goods. For example, when the price of a good rises, consumers switch away from the good toward its less expensive substitutes.
414. Examples of activities. substitution tables are useful in all curriculum areas, for any age range and can be used with EAL learners from New to English to Competent. 1. Predicting: An example of a simple substitution table for Key Stage 1 can be seen in At the seaside.
415. A substitution drill is a classroom technique used to practise new language. It involves the teacher first modelling a word or a sentence and the learners repeating it. The teacher then substitutes one or more key words, or changes the prompt, and the learners say the new structure. Example The following sequence is an example of a substitution
416. substitution definition at D, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
417. The substitution do is almost always anaphoric; it may presuppose an element within the same sentence as itself, so that there is already a structural relation linking the presupposed to the presupposing clause; but it frequently substitutes an element in a preceding sentence, and therefore it is a primary source of cohesion within a text.
418. SENTENCE REARRANGEMENT - Examples Practice Set for SENTENCE REARRANGEMENT TYPE-I Instructions: In each of the following questions, a sentence is broken into some ONE WORD substitution - Examples
419. ♦ Taking a fully written in, duplicated substitution table as the “most controlled” form of a table, ask trainees how tables could be made “freer” and more creative. (See refs). ♦ Use a sentence stem in order to get feedback from trainees on aspects of the course. For example write up on the board:
420. List of one word substitution in english grammar. example sentences / July 2, 2018 July 2, 2018. A traditional story related to deities – Myth ( मिथ ) Meaning – पौराणिक कथा
421. Synonyms for substitution at T with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Find descriptive alternatives for substitution.
422. Substitutional sentence examples: mode and the infrared absorption of Substitutional carbon in silicon n trapping effect of Substitutional alloying elements in α- present article is devoted to introduce the research works on make use of petroleum coke as a Substitutional fuel of the oil fired boil
423. (substitution) Who did Mary help? The man in the green hat and Michael. (question) 5. Any sequence of words which can be moved as a unit and still produce a grammatical sentence with the same meaning is a constituent. I worked on the ancient text with great care. With great care I worked on the ancient text.
424. Sentence examples for scope for substitution from inspiring English sources. 1. exact 59. similar 8. related RELATED scope for alternative. scope for conversion. scope for restoration. scope for compensation. scope for changing. possibilities for substitution. scope for alternatives
425. The simplest form of substitution cipher is when each character is replaced by exactly one other character (monoalphabetic ciphers). This encryption can be broken with statistical methods (frequency analysis) because in every language characters appear with a particular probability (Fig. 1.6).Examples of similar weak ciphers are Caesar Shift, Atbash, and Keyword.
426. Tests for constituents in English. Tests for constituents are diagnostics used to identify sentence structure. There are numerous tests for constituents that are commonly used to identify the constituents of English sentences. 15 of the most commonly used tests are listed next: 1) coordination (conjunction), 2) pro-form substitution (replacement), 3) topicalization (fronting), 4) do-so
427. Translations of the phrase substitution MODEL from english to russian and examples of the use of "substitution MODEL" in a sentence with their translations: far cry from the import substitution model of the past.
428. substitution in English grammar is when a word, phrase, or clause in a sentence is replaced by a different word or phrase (e.g. one, do, this) in order to avoid repeating the previously used word.. In these examples of substitution, the word/phrase in blue has been replaced later by the word in red:
429. The following example show the steps to solve a system of equations using the substitution method. Scroll down the page for more examples and solutions. In the substitution Method, we isolate one of the variables in one of the equations and substitute the results in the other equation.
430. Example 3. substitution of a text with another text within a range of lines. With the range, you can make only a range of line to be affected in the substitution. Specifying 1, 10 as range means, do substitution only in the lines 1 – 10.:1,10s/helo/hello/g Example 4. substitution of a text with another text by visual selection of lines
431. Disubstitution definition: Noun (plural disubstitutions) 1. (organic chemistry) Any substitution reaction in which two groups are substituted
432. One word substitution is one of the integral parts of vocabulary. It simply means that a sentence has to be replaced with a single word. This area requires a good vocabulary to solve the questions well. Questions based on one word substitution are often asked in various competitive exams.
433. Sentence substitution - Phonics Phase 4 Game Version 1.33 (Last updated: 28th April 2020) Adults can show children how to play this game on their own. At the bottom of the screen you will see a sentence and four words at the top. You can replace a word in the sentence with any of the words at the top, simply by dragging it down over the word
434. The definition of substitute good with examples. Indirect substitution substitution can be extremely indirect. For example, a student might considered the cost of a college education and decide to travel to Europe for an extended period instead.
435. In our previous lesson, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, we explored the properties of Integration, how to evaluate a definite integral (FTC #1), and also how to take a derivative of an integral (FTC #2). In this lesson, we will learn U-Substitution, also known as integration by substitution or simply u-sub for short.
436. Examples: he sent Smith in for Jones but the substitution came too late to help
437. One word substitution is a process in which people use one word to replace a wordy phrase, to make the sentence structure more clear. This also makes work more succinct, instead of convoluted.
438. This video examines #substitution as a #noun with the meaning of "the action of replacing someone or something with another person or thing." 5 nouns, which have meanings similar to that of
439. The sentence: I bought a shirt online but when the shirt arrived I didn't like the shirt changed to I bought a shirt online but when it arrived I didn't like it The noun shirt (with its article) has been replaced twice by it. Pronoun substitution is just about the most common form of substitution.

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